- Used in research on CD antigens, antigen receptors and histocompatibility markers.
- Poor breeding performance (small litters).
- High social dominance of males in competition for females.
- High spontaneous incidence of lung adenomas and mammary tumours in breeding females.
- Congenital defects include cleft-lip/palate and polydactyly at a prevalence of up to 10%.
- Incidence of nephritis and amyloidosis nearly 100% at 15 months.
- Low aggression, low responder in general (activity, alcohol, anaesthetics, metabolism).
- Hearing loss, blindness.